Monday, 23 December 2013

Article: The European Union and Abolition of the Death Penalty



CHRISTIAN BEHRMANN AND JON YORKE, The European Union and Abolition of the Death Penalty, 4 PACE Int'l L. Rev. Online Companion 1 (2013) 1-78.

For the full article in the PACE International Law Review Online Companion, see, 

http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=pilronline


ABSTRACT
The European Union has become a leading regional force in the progress towards a world free of state sanctioned judicial killing in the form of the death penalty. This article investi- gates how the EU has evolved its abolitionist position. It ana- lyzes the development of the region’s internal policy beginning in the European Parliament, to the rejection of the punishment being mandated as a Treaty provision, which evolves into an integral component of the external human rights project. The EU has now formulated technical bilateral and multilateral in- itiatives to promote abolition worldwide. This is most clearly evidenced in the EU playing an important role in the 2007 United Nations General Assembly Resolution on the moratori- um on the use of the death penalty, and the strengthening of the resolution in 2008, 2010, and 2012. This article demon- strates that the EU’s contribution to the abolition of the death penalty is a recognizable success story of human rights, and it is one aspect of the regions’ policies that was rewarded in 2012 with the Nobel Peace Prize.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction..............................................................................3 
II. Internal Policy and the Abolition of the Death Penalty ........6 
A. The Evolution of the Political Process ...........................6
B. The EU Treaties and the Formation of Internal Abolition Criteria................16 
III.Abolition and the EU’s External Human Rights Policy ......23 
A. EU Guidelines on the Death Penalty...........................24 
B. Bilateral Diplomacy......................................................25 
i. General Bilateral Action ........................................29 
ii. Individual Cases....................................................34 
IV. Amicus Curiae .....................................................................35 
V. Action in the Multilateral Fora ............................................56 
VI. Transfer of Persons in Security Circumstances..................62 
VII. Prohibition of the Trade in Execution Technologies .........64 
VIII. Funding of Abolitionist Civil Society Organizations ......72 
IX. Conclusion: A Human Rights Success Story .......................76 
Appendix 1.................................................................................77